The kingship of Mu'aawiyah was a kingship of mercy, so when it passed, the rule of Yazeed came and fitnah (trials and discord) took place within it: the killling of al-Husayn in Iraaq, the fitnah of the people of Hurrah in al-Madeenah and the seige of Makkah when 'Abdullah ibn az-Zubayr made his stand. Then Yazeed passed away and the Ummah split-up. Ibn az-Zubayr in the Hijaaz, Banu Hakam in ash-Shaam (Syria, Jordan and Palestine) and the jump to power of Mukhtaar ibn Abee'Ubayd and others in 'Iraaq. All of this took place at the end of the period of the Companions, when there only remained the likes of 'Abdullah ibn 'Abaas, 'Abdullah ibn Umar, Jaabir ibn 'Abdullah, Abu Saeed al-Khudree and others. The innovations of the Qadarriyah (7) and the Murjiah (8) then occured and it was refused by those Companions who remained, as they had, along with others, refuted the innovations of the Khawaarij and the Raafidah.
A Brief Summary
Ibn al-Qayyim (d.751H) (rh) said: "The innovation of the Qadariyyah started at the end of the period of the Companions. So those that remained at the end of the periods of the Companions.So those who remained at that time, such as 'Abdullah ibn Umar, Ibn Abbas, and their like, oppsed and refuted it. Then the innovation of the Murjiah occured, after the period of the Companions, so those of the major 'Tabiyoon who faced it, refuted it.Then came the innovation of the 'Jahyimmah' (9) after the passing away of the Tabbi'oon. Its evil reached alarming proportions and the matter had become dire during the age of the Imaams such as Ahmad (d.241H) and those with him.There appeared after this, the innovation of hulool (incarnation), this appeared with, and in the time of al-Hallaaj.
So whenever Shaytaan brought about an innovation from these innovations, or from other than them, Allaah established from His party an army, those who refuted it and warned the Muslims against it-all for the sake of sincerity and sincere advice for Allaah, His book, His Messenger and the people of Islaam"(11)
Compilation of the Aqeedah
Al-Haafidh Ibn Hajr (d.852H) (rh) said: "From that which occured was:compilation of hadeeth, then tafseer, then the compilation of issues of fiqh (jurisprudence) eminating from pure opinion, and then the compilation of matters related to actions of the heart.
As for the firts matter; it was opposed by 'Umaar, Abu Moosaa and a few others whilst the majority allowed it. As for the second:It was oppsed by a group from the Tabioon such as Imaam ash-Sha'bee(d.104H) and a small group. Imaam Ahmad's opposition of this intensified.
Also from that which occured was the compilation of the sayings about Usool ud-Deen (fundamentals of the Deen). Some embarked to affirm it (ie the attributes of Allaah), whilst others negated it. The former went to the extent of making tashbeeh (resembling Allaah to his creation), whilst the latter went to the extent of making ta'teel (denying the attributes of Allah). The rejection of this from the Salaf such as Abu Haneefah(d.150H), Abu Yoosuf(d.182H) and ash-Shaafiee(d.204H), and their sayings with regards to censuring the people of Kalaam (philosphical speech and theology) is well known. The reason for such censure was that the people of 'Kalaaam' spoke about those matters which both the Prophet and his Companions remained quiet about. It is established from Maalik(d.179H) that there did not exist at the time of the Prophet nor that of AbuBakr (rta) or Umar (rta), anything from these desires - meaning: the innovation of the Khawaarij, the Raafidah and the Qadiriyyah. Indeed, those who came after the first three excellent generations expanded upon matters which the Imaams of the Tabioon and those who followed them, rejected.
The people of Kalaam did not content themselves, until they filled the Deen with issues and the sayings of the philosphers. They made this philoshopy the basis and the fundamental principle to which everything was refered back to, and all that which opposed it from the narrations (of the Prophet, his Companions and the Salaf who followd them) then ta'weel (false interpretation ) was made of them, even if they were averse to the result. Nor did they content themselves with just this.They claimed that what they had compiled was the noblest branch of knowledge and the most deserving to be acquired; and that those who did not use what they had laid down, then they were from the laymen and the ignorant ones.
So delight is for the one who clings to what the Salaf were upon, and distances himself from the innovations that the khalaf (the latecomers who oppsed the aqeedah and manhaj of the Salaf) introduced.However, if one cannot keep away from it, then let him take only that which he needs and let the way of the Salaf be his intended goal."(12)
Shayk's introduction to his book:Taqreebut-Tadmuriyyah (pp.7-14) -slightl