Ahl-us-Sunnah wal Jamaa'ah are those who gather upon adherence to the Prophet's Sunnah (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) - outwardly and inwardly; in speech, action and belief.
Their way with respect to Allaah's Names and Attributes is:
3.1 CONCERNING AFFIRMATION
They affirm that which Allaah has affirmed for Himself in His Book or via His Messenger (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) without Tahreef, Ta'teel, Takyeef or Tamtheel.
3.2 CONCERNING DENIAL
They deny that which Allaah has denied for Himself in His Book or via His Messenger (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) .
At the same time they affirm the opposite in the most perfect sense.
3.3 CONCERNING WHERE AFFIRMATION OR DENIAL IS
NOT SPECIFICALLY MENTIONED
e.g. al-Jism (body), al-Hayyiz (realm), al-Jihah (direction).
Then their way is:
To halt at the words and neither affirm or deny them.
Then to look into the meaning of those words
- if the meaning is false then they deny this meaning
- if the meaning is correct and not prohibited for Allaah then they accept this meaning.
3.4 THIS WAY (3.1-3.3) IS ESTABLISHED VIA TWO
- The Mind
- The Revelation
3.4.1 THE MIND
- It's clear to the mind, that the details of what is obligatory, permitted or prohibited for Allaah can not be reached by the mind.
- Hence one must follow the Revelation - affirming or denying what it affirms or denies, and staying silent where it is silent.
3.4.2 THE REVELATION
18.104.22.168 (7):180 - Proof of Affirmation without
Tahreef or Ta'teel for both of these are from Ilhaad.
22.214.171.124 (42):111 - Proof to reject Tamtheel.
126.96.36.199 (17):36 - Proof to reject Takyeef and to
obligate us to halt at those terms where affirmation or denial is not
3.5 ATTRIBUTES WHICH ARE AFFIRMED OR DENIED FOR
3.5.1 THOSE WHICH ARE AFFIRMED FOR HIM
These are Attributes of Perfection in the most perfect sense without there being any aspect of deficiency.
3.5.2 THOSE WHICH ARE DENIED FOR HIM
- Are attributes of deficiency which contradict perfection.
- Hence they are prohibited for Him.
188.8.131.52 And when Denying These, We Must Affirm the
Opposite of it in the Most Perfect Sense because only denying it may be due to a
e.g. The poetry the Shaykh quotes.
e.g. to say "The wall does not oppress" - this is not a praise of the wall because it can't oppress!
Examples concerning Allaah:
- 184.108.40.206.1 Allaah has denied Dhulm - Oppression from
Himself, so we deny it from Him, and also affirm its opposite - Justice [al
'Adl] - in the most perfect sense.
- 220.127.116.11.2 Allaah has denied Lughoob - Fatigue from Himself, so we deny
it from Him, and also affirm its opposite - Power [al Qoowah] - in the most
18.104.22.168 In the Language - to change or alter.
22.214.171.124 Technically here - to change the texts in
wording or meaning. This is of 3 kinds.
- 126.96.36.199.1 Altering the words so the meaning
changes: e.g. What some innovators do to the Saying of Allaah in (4):164 -
changing the Dammah on the last letter of "Allaah" with a Fathah,
in order to change the meaning to "Moosaa spoke to Allaah..."
- 188.8.131.52.2 Altering the words with no change of
meaning: e.g. changing the Dammah on the last letter of "al Hamd"
in (1):2, to a Fathah. This usually occurs out of ignorance.
- 184.108.40.206.3 Altering the Meaning: taking the meaning of the words away
from their most apparent meaning without any proof. e.g. Saying Allaah's Two
Hands means "His Power" or "His Blessing".
220.127.116.11 In the Language - to discharge and to make
18.104.22.168 Technically here - to reject or deny all or
some of that which is obligatory for Allaah regarding His Names and Attributes.
This is of 2 types.
- 22.214.171.124.1 Complete Ta'teel - like the Jahmeeyah who
deny the Attributes and some of them deny the Names.
- 126.96.36.199.2 Partial Ta'teel - like the Ash'areeyah who deny some of the Attributes.
- The first of this Ummah to do this was
Ja'd ibn Dirham.
- to try to describe "how" an Attribute is. e.g. To say: How Allaah's Hand is, is like this and that, or How His Descending is, is like this and that.
- Takyeef differs to Tamtheel and Tashbeeh in two ways:
188.8.131.52 Takyeef is to Relate How Something is, with
Restriction or Not by way of resembling. While Tamtheel and Tashbeeh indicate
how something is in a restricted sense, by way of a likeness or resemblance